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IT Security and Risk Management

1. Differentiate between vulnerabilities, threats, and countermeasures in information security. How do organizations identify and address vulnerabilities? Illustrate how a firewall plays an important role in protecting networks from unauthorized access. (10 Marks)

2. Explain the importance of security awareness training for employees within an organization. How can a strong security awareness culture contribute to mitigating cybersecurity risks?

Discuss the role of employees in maintaining the security of information systems and the potential consequences of a lack of security awareness among staff members. (10 Marks)

3. A multinational e-commerce company, E-ShopX, is preparing for its annual flash sale event, which attracts millions of online shoppers. As a cybersecurity analyst hired by E-ShopX, you are tasked with ensuring the security of the company’s systems and infrastructure during this critical period.

Malicious Code Incident:

a. Scenario: On the eve of the flash sale, several customers report unusual behavior on the E-ShopX website, such as unexpected redirects, pop-up ads, and slow performance

As the cybersecurity analyst, how would you investigate the reported incidents to determine if the website has been compromised by malicious code? Outline the steps you would take to identify, isolate, and mitigate the malicious code to ensure the security and integrity of the website for the upcoming flash sale. (5 Marks)

b. Scenario: As the flash sale approaches, E-ShopX becomes a prime target for cyberattacks, including denial of service (DoS) attacks aimed at disrupting the website’s availability and causing financial losses.

As the cybersecurity analyst, what proactive measures would you implement to protect E-ShopX’s systems and infrastructure from potential denial of service (DoS) attacks during the flash sale event? Describe the strategies and technologies you would deploy to detect, mitigate, and respond to DoS attacks in real-time to ensure uninterrupted service for online shoppers. (5 Marks)