## Briefly define Affinity Diagram with an example

## Six Sigma Black Belt

**Multiple Choices:**

**Q1.** Calculate the estimated variance of the population from which the following values have been randomly selected: 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.8.

#### a. 095

#### b. 009

#### c. 088

#### d. 008

**Q2. **The mean, median and mode of a distribution have the same value. What can be said about the distribution?

#### a. It is exponential

#### b. It is normal

#### c. It is uniform

#### d. None of the above

**Q3.** Approximately what percent of the data values are smaller than the mean?

#### a. 25%

#### b. 50%

#### c. 75%

#### d. None of above

**Q4.** A normal probability plot is used to:

#### a. Determine whether the distribution is normal

#### b. Plot Z value

#### c. Determine process capability

#### d. It percent out of specification

**Q5.** Nominal Group technique is used to:

#### a. Help a group reach consensus

#### b. Generate a group on new ideas

#### c. Provide a consistent stable group leadership

#### d. Provide a name for the group

**Q6.** An example of a project metric would be:

#### a. The decrease in defect occurrence

#### b. The decrease in product cost

#### c. The decrease in cycle time

#### d. All the above

**Q7.** A correct statement about the relationship between the terms parameter and statistic is:

#### a. A population statistic is more accurate than a parameter

#### b. A sample parameter is used to estimate a statistic

#### c. A sample statistic is used to estimate a population parameter

#### d. Standard deviation calculation requires both statistics and parameters

**Q8.** A and B are events. P(A) = 0.80 and P(B) = 0.90:

#### a. Events A and B are disjoint or mutually exclusive

#### b. Events A and B are not disjoint or mutually exclusive

#### c. P (A and B) = 0

#### d. P(A and B) = 1.7

**Q9.** In a certain sampling situation, a=0, b=0.08. the power of the sampling plan this case is:

#### a. 0

#### b. 0.08

#### c. 1.00

#### d. 0.92

**Q10.** A newspaper article describes a high positive correlation between obesity and orange juice consumption among six-year-old children’s. Parents who restrict the use of orange juice for their children have:

#### a. Made a type I error

#### b. Made a type II error

#### c. Misunderstood margin of error

#### d. Confused correlation with causation

**Q11.** In an experimental design context, replications refer to:

#### a. Duplicating experimental result at another location

#### b. Repeating a test with the same factor levels

#### c. Obtaining the same or similar result from different factors

#### d. Repeating an experiment but using at least one different factor level

**Q12.** Find the upper control limit for a range chart if n=4 and the average range is 2.282.

#### a. 2.282

#### b. 4.564

#### c. 5.208

#### d. 3.423

**Q13.** An x-bar control chart been established with control limits of 3.245 and 3.257, n=5. An engineer collects the following sample and plots the average on the control chart: 3.257, 3.256, 3.258, 3.259

#### a. The process is out of control

#### b. The process is not out of control

#### c. The engineer misused the control chart

#### d. The control limits are incorrect

**Q14.** TEIZ is an acronym which refers to:

#### a. A set of problem solving tools

#### b. An organization of quality professionals

#### c. An experiment using transitional results

#### d. A Russian general responsible for creative thinking

**Q15.** A robust design is one which;

#### a. Has high reliability

#### b. Has low maintenance frequency

#### c. Is simple to manufacture’

#### d. Is resistant to varying environmental condition

**Q16.** A frequent cause of system sub optimization is:

#### a. Optimizing individual process

#### b. Failing to draw a system flow chart

#### c. Using data with outliers

#### d. Failing to consider the normal distribution

**Q17.** The x2 distribution is:

#### a. Symmetric

#### b. Left skewed

#### c. Right skewed

#### d. Normal

**Q18.** An advantage of using standard deviation rather than range for measuring dispersion of a large sample is that:

#### a. Standard deviation has a simpler formula

#### b. Calculators have a standard deviation key but not a range Key

#### c. Standard deviation uses information from each measurement

#### d. Range calculation are not normally distributed

**Q19.** The team development stage characterized by expression of individual opinions and ideas often without regard for team objectives is known as:

#### a. Performing

#### b. Norming

#### c. Conflicting

#### d. Storming

**Q20. **SMED is an acronym for activity that:

#### a. Involve housekeeping in the work area

#### b. Makes mistake of a certain type impossible

#### c. Emphasizes the pull of the customer

#### d. Reduces set up the time

**Q21.** A principle advantage of fractional factorial experimental designs is:

#### a. Reduced cost

#### b. Improved accuracy

#### c. Increased confounding

#### d. Higher confidence level

**Q22.** Dr. W Edwards Deming:

#### a. Lectured in Japan after World War II

#### b. Was an author of several books in the US

#### c. Is considered an expert in the quality field

#### d. All of the above

**Part Two:**

**Q23.** What percent of population falls below the lower specification limits?

#### a. 9.18%

#### b. 22.66%

#### c. 6.68%

#### d. 1.83%

**Q24.** Find the mean, median and mode of the following data set: 9, 11, 12, 14, 18, 18, 18, 20, and 23:

#### a. 15.5, 18, 18

#### b. 15, 14, 18

#### c. 15, 12, 18

#### d. 15.5, 16, 18

**Use for problems 25-27:****A B Res.**

**Q25.** Calculate the main effect of factor A:

#### a. 20

#### b. 25

#### c. 30

#### d. None of the above

**Q26.** Calculate the interaction effect:

#### a. 20

#### b. 25

#### c. 40

#### d. None of the above

**Q27.** If it is desirable to maximize the response R, the following levels should be used:

#### a. A+ and B+

#### b. A+ and B

#### c.A- and B+

#### d. None of the above

**Q28.** This experimental design is:

#### a. Full factorial

#### b. Half factorial

#### c. Quarter factorial

#### d. None of the above

**Q29.** The number of factors, levels and replications:

#### a. 3, 3, 3

#### b. 3, 2, 2

#### c. 3, 2, 3

#### d. None of the above

**Q30.** An indication of the experimental error is available because the design has:

#### a. Multiple replications

#### b. Multiple levels

#### c. Multiple factors

#### d. None of the above

**Q31.** The average number of defects is 21.6. Find the upper control limit for the C-chart.

#### a. 26.4

#### b. 24.6

#### c. 26.2

#### d. None of the above

**Q32. **Briefly define Affinity Diagram with an example.

**Q33.** By using imaginary figures draw a Run Chart.

**Q34.** Consider the following data & develop a normal probability graph paper & normal probability plot:7.9, 9.7, 10.6, 12.7, 12.8, 18.1, 21.2, 33.0, 43.5, 51.1, 81.4, 93.1

**Q35.** A painting process produces coatings with a thickness of 0.0005 & a standard deviation of 0.00002. What should the tolerance limits be for this process? Briefly explain Tolerance design?

**Q36.** What is Pugh matrix? State the steps which are used in Pugh matrix.

**Q37.** Define & describe the purpose of root cause analysis? Recognize the issues involved in identifying a root cause analysis and list various tools for resolving chronic problem?

**Q38.** Describe the purpose & elements of FMEA including risk priority number (RPN), and evaluate FMEA results for processes, products, & services. Distinguish between design FMEA (DFMEA) & process FMEA (PFMEA) and interpret results from each.

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