Petroleum Management – Define the method chemical treatment

Define the method chemical treatment

Petroleum Management



All crudes contain moisture and salts to varying degrees. Water is likely to occur in emulsion form when the crudes are naphthenic or sulfurous. No harm may be expected to the distillation column due to the presence of moisture, as there is always steam in distillation. However, crude has to be dehydrated to remove the salts. Water being good solvent for these salts, the removal is very much effective in the form of brine. Long standing of crudes may permit the separation of aqua phase along with salts and other suspended impurities in other words dehydration removes all salts. Lot of methods are versatile for dehydration of crudes?

1) Define the method chemical treatment?

2) Explain the method Gravity settling?

3) Define the method Electric desalted?

4) Explain in brief the term Dehydration?



Distillation is a separation technique used for separation of soluble liquid mixtures into individual components. Modern Refinery techniques have meticulously laid the way to recover as many fractions as possible from Crude, discarding the least possible in view of binding situation i.e. darkness of crude. The basic of refinery distillation design rests completely on TBP tests. Distillation of crude mainly takes place in two stages ADU & VDU.

1) Define the term ADU (Atmospheric Distillation Units)?

2) Define the term VDU (Vacuum Distillation Units)?

3) Define the term TTR (Top Tray Reflux)?

4) Explain the term ‘Distillation of Petroleum’ in brief?



Blending, an important operation in refinery, is a physical process in which accurately weighted quantities of two or more components are mixed thoroughly to form a homogenous phase, the components mixed being similar or dissimilar in nature. Most of the products obtained from distillation columns are invariably blended with fractions obtained from other units to help in keeping the wastage minimum and increasing the quantities products. Almost all the products from Gasoline’s, gas to lube oil are not only blends of fractions but additives too.

1) Define the term Blending in brief?

2) Explain the Blending process?

3) Explain the term line Blending?

4) Explain the term Gasoline Blending?



Asphalt is obtained as the ultimate bottom product of a Vacuum distillation column. The residuum’s may still contain some oil, but further distillation serves no use at all. These residuum’s are rich in asphalts and form the starting materials for air blown bitumen. Asphalts are also obtained in large scale, from deasphalting units. Reduced crudes, waxy distillates, lube oils and long residuum’s are usually deasphalted for getting quality lube oil base stocks.

1) Explain chemical structure of Asphalt?

2) Comment. Action of Heat on Asphalt?

3) Explain the types of Asphalts?

4) Comment. Air blowing of Asphalt?

Define the method chemical treatment Distillation

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Define the method chemical treatment Distillation