Data Management – Explain the term ‘Magnetic Tapes’?Define in brief ‘Secondary Storage Devices’?Explain why transaction atomicity is one of the most important requirement

Explain the term ‘Magnetic Tapes’?Define in brief

Data Management




The physical or internal level organization of a database system is concerned with the efficient storage of information in the Secondary Storage devices. The physical to conceptual level mapping must provide the necessary shield to the user. The basic problem in physical database representation is to select a suitable file system to store the desired information. The file consist of records and a record may consist of several fields.

Q1.  What are the typical operations that may be performed on the information stored in the file?

Q2. Explain in detail factors affecting physical organization of data?

Q3. Explain the term ‘Magnetic Tapes’?

Q4. Define in brief ‘Secondary Storage Devices’?


In a medical database with attributes DISEASE, SYMPTOM, TEST (such as pathological or clinical tests), TREATMENT and MEDICINE, following data dependencies are assumed to hold.

Q1. Compute the dependency basis of each attribute?

Q2. Identify the join dependencies that hold in this database?

Q3. Does there exist a fourth normal form decomposition that preserves the dependencies?

Q4. If so, design a fourth normal form lossless, join decomposition that preserves the dependencies?


Q1. Anyone can read BANKACNT relation except for the ACCT NO attribute.

Q2. Any accountholder can read the tuple corresponding to his/her own account number  from the ACNT DETAIL relation.

Q3. Bank employees can read tuples from ACNT DETAIL relation, but only those employees whose job is TELLER can update entries in the ACNT DETAIL relation pertaining to any ACCT NO (this field cannot be modified).

Q4. Bank employees can read BANK EMPLOYEE relation except for the SALARY attribute.


Q1. Explain why transaction atomicity is one of the most important requirement for concurrency control?

Q2. Describe how in a multiuser environment atomicity of read and write operations can be ensured, especially for large data items i.e. when the granularity of data items is larger than a disc block?

Q3. Describe the functional modules of a centralized database system responsible for concurrency control and recovery?

Q4. Discuss how database read and write operations are implemented?



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