Advertising – Explain how watching a movie from another country might help you prepare to interpret nonverbal behavior from that culture correctly.

Explain how watching a movie from another country might help you prepare to interpret nonverbal behavior from that culture correctly.



  1. What is advertising? Bring out clearly the changing concept of advertising in modern business world.2. Explain the objectives and functions of advertisement manager.3. What is advertisement budget? How do you determine optimal expenditure through advertisement budget?4. What are the characteristics of advertising media? Explain..

    5. Write a short note on:
    a) Visual layout. b) Production traffic copy.

    6. How do you measure the effectiveness of advertisement? Explain.

    7. Define sales promotion? Explain the types of sales promotion.

    8. Explain the merits and demerits publicity.


Apparel Production Management


  1. Discuss elaborately on the product types and organisation of clothing industry.
  2. Explain in detail the production planning and different departments of a garment industry
  3. Discuss in detail on the pricing policies and factors affecting pricing policies.
  4. Explain how the basic work measurement is carried out.
  5. Explain in detail ten point and Dallas systems of fabric inspection systems.
  6. Discuss on the functions of finance department.
  7. Answer any 2 short notes

(i) Fashion trends. (ii) Seasons in apparel export. (iii) Four point system.

  1. Sample approval. 2. Production planning. 3. Merchandise inventory turnover. 4. Definitions of quality. 5. Purchase order. 6. Information technology in apparel industry. 7. Quality standards.


Apparel Production Management

  1. The machine requirement in detail for manufacturing 300000 pieces a month with a description of the kind of machinery?  ( 10 Marks)
  2. The total plan for the Man power in terms of cutting unit, Finishing Unit and the washing unit as well as the administration staff? ( 10 Marks)
  3. How many different production lines would you suggest provided the monthly requirement of 300000 pieces will be made in 10 different styles? ( 10 Marks)


  1. The Production planning schedule for all 3 units for the next 6 months. ( 15 Marks)
  2. The Overtime planning divided amongst all 3 units provided that each unit works for 25 days in a month. ( Different plan for Stitching and Printing) ( 10 marks)
  3. The printing plan of unit#3 – Is it feasible to invest in additional capacity or to outsource the printing? ( 5 marks)


  1. The operation break down in a stitching unit with a process flow for the following garments
  2. The basic 5 pocket jeans (10 Marks)
  3. The basic Formal single pocket shirt (10 Marks)


Brand Management


  1. As a Management consultant give your comments on Burnol as a brand.
  1.     What do you understand by the concept of a Brand?  Describe the characteristics of Brands.
  2.       a.         Define the Brand Image. Explain the dimensions of Brand Image.
  3. What is meant by Brand Identity? Explain the different elements of Brand Identity.
  4. Discuss in detail the different stages of brand building process.
  5. a.         What is Brand Audit?  Explain its importance.
  6. Describe the two steps in brand audit.
  7. “Positioning is an outcome of our perceptions about the brand relative to the competing

brands”        – Discuss with examples.

  1. How do consumers perceive and choose brands? Discuss.
  2. What are the different phases of strategic brand management process?
  3. Discuss the “TEN COMMANDMENTS” of Global Branding.



Business Strategy


  1. What is the best option, in your view, for DD?
  2. Analyze the SWOT factors the DD has.
  • Why do you think that the proposed alternative is the best?
a) What is SWOT Analysis?
b) What are the strength of PTC?
c) What are the weaknesses of PTC for entering into the branded snacks market?
d) What kind of marketing strategy was formulated and implemented for Ringo?
       e) What else need to be done by Ringo so as to enlarge its market?


  1. What do you understand by the term Vision? What is the difference between ‘Vision’ and ‘Mission’? What vision Dr. Sukumar has at the time of inheritance of Dey’s lab? Has it been achieved?
  2. For growth           what   business   strategy   has   been      adopted   by   Dr.      Sukumar?

iii.What         is   the            marketing   strategy   of   Dr.        Sukumar       to   overtake  its            competitors?

  1. In your opinion what could be the biggest weakness in Dr. Sukumar’s business strategy?



  1. Identify and discuss briefly, the three themes of strategy implementation of activating strategies, managing change and achieving effectiveness in the case of Deepak Nitrite.
  2. picking up data from the case, demonstrate how formulation and implementation of strategy are interdependent.



Banking Management

Please attempt any 10 questions out of the questions mentioned below.

  1. (a) Discuss the objectives and scope of ‘Financial Management’ in a Bank.

(b) Differentiate between ‘Common size Financial Statement Analysis’ and ‘Trend Analysis’ of Balance Sheets of Bank.

  1. Discuss the different sources from which Banks can borrow funds within India.
  2. Discuss the importance of ‘Cost of Funds’ for a Bank. Explain the various rates that have an impact on the cost of funds of a Bank.
  3. Discuss the salient features of:

(a) Commercial Papers, and
(b) Inter-Bank Participation Certificates

  1. Describe the role played by Bank in the foreign exchange market. Briefly discuss the different types of ‘Foreign Exchange Rate Systems’. Also explain the factors that affect the foreign exchange rates.
  2. What is ‘risk management’? What are its objectives? Briefly explain the different categories of risks that are relevant to Banks.
  3. Explain the significance of measuring and managing ‘credit risk’ in Bank. Also discuss the basic approaches to credit risk measurement at individual loan intrinsic level.
  4. Why are more and more Bank going for mergers these days? Briefly explain the core principles for future restructuring of weak Banks as suggested by the Verma Group.
  5. What are Principles of sound lending?
  6. What is negotiable instrument? What are its special features?
  7. The relationship between the banker and customer is primarily that of debtor and creditor – Explain.
  8. State the function of Central Bank as Lender of last resort.
  9. Explain the factors determining cash reserves of banks.
  10. Discuss the roles of Commercial banks in economic development.
  11. What are the factors to be considered in case of secured advances?







  1. What qualities does a person need to be a good proofreader ? Are such qualities inborn, or can they be learned ?
  2. Proofread the following sentence :

application of these methods in stores in San Deigo nd Cinncinati have resulted in a 30 drop in robberies an a 50 percent decling in violence there, according at the developers if the security system, Hanover brothrs, Inc.


  1. Explain how watching a movie from another country might help you prepare to interpret nonverbal behavior from that culture correctly.
  2. One of your co-workers is originally from Saudi Arabia. You like him, and the two of you work well together. However, he stands so close when you speak with him that it makes you very uncomfortable. Do you tell him of your discomfort, or do you try to cover it up ?


  1. Think back over the lessons you’ve learned in life. How did you benefit from some one telling you the truth about something you were doing wrong ?
  2. With a partner, role-play a situation in which one of you is the boss and the other an employee. The boss is angry because the employee repeatedly arrives late for work, takes long lunches, and leaves 5 to 10 minutes early.  However, the employee’s work is always excellent.  After the role-play, analyze what the boss did right and what could be improved.


  1. Review two sales letters for content. List the “Puffery” statements in each          letter.
  2. Note any statements in these sales letters that appear questionable to you. Rewrite one of the statements, carefully choosing words that won’t be misleading to consumers.


  1. What advantages and disadvantages do you see in asking store managers at Mrs. Fields to file electronic troubleshooting reports immediately on the company’s intranet ?
  2. What kinds of electronic reports might a company want to post on its website ?




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Business Communication

  1. Comment on the appropriateness of the sender’s tone to a customer.
  2. Point out the old – fashioned phrases and expressions.
  3. Rewrite the reply according to the principles of effective writing in business.
  4. What is non – verbal communication ? Why do you suppose that this     commercial relies

primarily on non-verbal communication         between a      young man and a gorgeous

woman ?  What types of     non – verbal communication are being used in this case ?

  1. Would any of the non-verbal communications in this spot (ad) not work   well in another

culture ?

  1. What role does music play in this spot ? Who is the target market ?
  2. Is the music at all distracting from the message ?
  3. How else are radio stations advertised on TV ?
  4. Analyse the reasons for Arvind Pandey’s dilemma.
  5. Does Arvind Pandey really face a dilemma ?
  6. In your view what should Arvind Pandey do ? Should he disclose it to his German Vice

President ?

  1. Comment on the terms and conditions placed by the corporation.
  2. What factors influenced the computer company’s decision to accept the      contract ?
  3. Was it a win – win agreement ? Discuss ?
  4. Do you find Mr. Sinha’s responses to various questions effective ?            Give    reasons for your

view on each answer given by Mr. Sinha.

  1. Rewrite the responses that you consider most effective to the above questions in a job


  1. Mr. Sinha has observed the norm of respectful behaviour and polite conversation.  But,

do you think there is something             gone wrong in his case ?  Account for your general             impression of  Mr. Sinha’s performance at the interview.




  1. Discuss the various provisions WTO has made for the developing countries? Critically evaluate the impact of WTO on the India.
  2. Discuss the present status of technology in India and Indian business organization. Discuss the role of technology in the development of India.
  3. Briefly describe the process of formation of company according to the company law? Describe the various modes of winding up of companies.
  4. Describe the various approaches to international business. Discuss the reasons why organizations cross borders. Discuss the impact of MNCs on the host country.
  5. Explore and explain the cross-culture dimension of international personnel management.
  6. Compile stock market data for a few specific countries. Attempt a comparative trend analysis to throw light on nation-specific investment climate.
  7. Would you accept the view that economic and non-economic variables interact each other on the domain of business environment? Explain.
  8. In what sense, is ‘India going global’? Develop some counter argument to conclude that it is a long way for India to go really global





  1. Define business ethics?
  2. What is kick-back in business?
  3. What is unfair discrimination?
  4. What is acid rain?
  5. Define the term social responsibility in business?
  6. Difference between transactional & transformational leadership?
  7. Business & ethics are contradictory?
  8. Explain the term ‘stealing trade secrets
  9. Explain whistle blowing
  10. Mention 3 unethical practices in marketing?
  11. What are the primary reasons for resources depletion?
  12. Explain the objectives of social audit?

13.discuss the role & import of ethics in business

14.explain the types of ethical issues in business

15.discuss about the qualities & features of CEO in business

16.analyses the various causes of pollution in developing countries explain the principle obligations of

a business firm
17.discuss in detail about unfair trade discrimination?


Consumer Behaviour


  1. Define consumer behaviour. Discuss the broad areas of its application in marketing.
    2. Discuss the concepts of demographics, psycho graphics and life style. Explain the approaches to study life style.
    3. Describe the stages in the perceptual process and discuss various senses that determines how we respond to products.
    4. How learning differs from other forms of communication? Distinguish between the instrumental learning and the classical learning approaches.
    5. Explain the role of reference groups in group dynamics and their effect on buying behaviour of buyers.
    6. Discuss the factors which are influencing the consumer decision-making process. How nature of the family influences that operate on the purchase behaviour?
    7. Explain the various issues in problem recognition. Distinguish factors and compulsions forcing a choice between internal and external search.8. How the purchase stage is completed in the buying process? Also explain the buyers complaint behaviour and the marketers response.
    9. How does the micro-economic model explain the decision process of a consumer? What are the shortcomings of the model?
    10. Describe the nature, scope and areas of application of consumer behaviour models.





1.”All contracts are agreements but all agreements are not contracts.” Discuss this statement in light of the essential elements of a valid contract. Also mention briefly the different kinds of agreements under the India Contract Act, 1872.
2. Discuss, what are the rights, liabilities and disabilities of a minor as per the Indian Partnership Act, 1932.
3. What do you understand by implied warranties and conditions of sale according to the sale of Goods Act, 1930?
4. Differentiate between lay-off and retrenchment according to the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947.
5. Give the provisions related to safety as given in the Factories Act, 1948.
6. What are the characteristics or essential features of a company and briefly mention the types of companies.
7. What do you understand by electronic governance and what are the attributes of electronic records as mentioned in the Information Technology Act, 2000.
8. Discuss the concept of free consent and misrepresentation as per the Indian Contract Act, 1872.
9. Distinguish between private and public company. What are the special privileges of a private company over public company according to Companies Act, 1956?
10. Write short notes on any two of the following:
(a) Cyber regulation  (b) Industrial Dispute  (c) Breach of Contact  (d) Voidable contracts.


  1. Define customer relationship management & what are the different factors that influence buying behaviour?
  2. Discuss consumer purchase decision process giving one real time example
  3. State the importance of customer relationship building. State the different levels of relationship marketing & tools used to develop strong customer bondage
  4. What do you mean by customer interaction management? Discuss the routes & factors influencing CIM
  5. What do you mean by a loyal customer & discuss loyal customer ladder?
  6. Please write a short note on Customer Life Cycle.
  7. Please write a short note on Disadvantages of CRM with Indian context.
  8. Explain the two dimensions to CRM – Customer facing and Company facing


Facilities Management


  1. Highlight the importance of Facilities management.
  2. List out the functions of a modern facilities manager.
  3. Explain the importance of staffing in facilities management.
  4. Describe the types of motivation and explain the same with reference to the facilities staff.
  5. Relate office accommodation and furniture layout to facilities management.
  6. State and explain the uses of various office forms.
  7. Discus the different clerical operations in an office
  8. Bring out the importance of office communication system.
  9. Please explain the process of tenders in an office and functions of a facilities Manager with reference to the same.
  10. What do you mean by storage facility? What are the types of storage?


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Finance Management


Q1. What do you understand by Internal Audit ? How do the functions of an internal auditor differ from that of External Auditor ?

Q2.  Explain the consistency concept and Accrual Concept of Accounting. How is the Accrual Concept adhered to while preparing the final accounts of a company ?

Q3. What are intangible assets of a firm ? Why are they shown in the Balance Sheet ? What is meant by amortisation of such assets ? Give reason for the same

Q4.  What do you understand by Appropriation of profit of a company? How are the profits appropriated ? How will the profits to be appropriated, affected, if the company issues debentures, instead of equity shares to finance its activities ? Discuss how?

Q5. Distinguish between:

FIFO and LIFO methods of Inventory valuation.

Rights Shares and Bonus Shares

Direct Material Price Variance and Direct Material Usage Variance

Imputed Costs and Opportunity Costs.

Q6. What do you understand by Break-even analysis ? Discuss the assumptions underlying the break-even analysis. How do these assumptions make the break-even analysis unrealistic ? Explain and prepare a Break-even chart assuming relevant figures

Q7.  What do you understand by Flexible Budget ? How does it differ from a Fixed Budget ? Explain its utility to a business organisation.

Q8. What do you mean by Control Ratios ? Explain the three important control ratios and discuss their significance

Q9. Explain fully the following statements :

  1. Operating cycle plays a decisive role in estimating the working capital requirement of a firm.
  2. As there is no explicit cost of retained earnings, they are free of cost.
  1. Depreciation acts as a tax shield
  2. An investor in shares considers not only its E.P.S. but also P.E. ratio.



  1. Who are the stakeholders in this case ?
  2. Which stakeholders are most important ?
  3. What are the critical trends in Tri – State’s environment ?
  4. Why do you think Tri State’s customers are so upset ?
  5. What should John Godwin do ?
  6. What economic and social factors should Fresh Fields managers watch ?
  7. Suppose you manage a local supermarket and Fresh Fields comes to town. How would you reinvent your organization to meet the challenges posed by Fresh Fields ?
  8. How would you describe the organizational culture at Flagstar ?
  9. How does Flagstar deal with diversity ?
  10. What challenges could Flagstar face in its near future ?

Q.1. What environmental factors influenced management style at Disney?

Q.2 what kind(s) of organizational structure seem to be consistent with “Dream as a Team”?

Q.3 How and where might the informal organization be a real asset at Disney

Q.1 How were principles of delegation and decentralization incorporated into Cine – Made operations?

Q.2 What are the sources and uses of power at Cin – Made?

Q.3.What were some of the barriers to delegation and empowerment at Cin –Made?

4.What lessons about management in a rapidly changing marketplace can be learned from the experience of Cin – Made?

  1. With retailers as their primary customers, what customer competitive imperatives could be

affected by Rollerblades           inventory problems ?

  1. How appropriate might a just – in – time inventory system be for a product such as roller skates ?”
  2. What opportunities are there fore Rollerblade managers to see themselves as selling services, instead of simply roller skates ?


Human Resource Management


  1. Define and differentiate between Job Analysis, Job Description and Job Evaluation. Select an appropriate job evaluation method and create a plan for evaluating jobs of scientists in different grades.
  2. Discuss the role of indoctrination in organizations. How can Performance Appraisal, and Training and Development be made an integral part of Human Resource Planning? Discuss.
  3. Discuss the scope of Human Resource Audit. While auditing Reward systems for employees in a manufacturing organization, which factors should be taken into account and why? Explain with suitable examples.
  4. Define and discuss the need for Human Resource Planning in an organization. Briefly discuss various approaches to HRP
  5. Write short notes on any three of the following:
    (a) Training methods
    (b) Value determinants of HRP
    (c) Human Resource accounting
    (d) Labour Market Behavior
    (e) Promotion and Reward Policies


  1. Define and discuss the objectives of Human Resource Planning at organizational level. How does it help in determining and evaluating future organizational capabilities, needs and anticipated problems? Explain with suitable examples.
  2. Define and describe Job Analysis. Briefly discuss several methods in which information about a job is collected and evaluated.
  3. What is the purpose and process of recruitment function? Discuss various methods of sourcing manpower.
  4. How is monetary value assigned to different dimensions of Human Resources costs, investments, and worth of the employees? Briefly explain Cost and Economic value approaches of measurement.
  5. Write short notes on any three of the following :
    (a) MBO
    (b) Succession Planning
    (c) Competency Mapping
    (d) Job Evaluation
    (e) H.R. Inventory

(a) Was the management justified in taking a decision to recruit a qualified and experienced person from outside as Deputy Chief Quality Controller?

(b) Was it in the interest of the organization to transfer Ratnam to the new auto-wheeler plant and promote Kapil Kumar? What could have prompted the management to take this decision?

(c) How do you view the role of O.A.s in supporting only the local and internal candidates and overlooking the interests of direct recruits even when they were family members of the Association, particularly at a time, when the industry needed professionally qualified persons to fill key technical posts?

(d) How would you react to the management’s scheme for quarter allotment and why?

(i) Identify the issues related to manpower planning as evident in the case.

(ii) Discuss the strategies to tackle the percentage of internal promotion at the organizational level.

(iii)What type of additional training programmers’ should be imparted for direct entrants?

(iv) Suppose you are the head of the personnel division. What would be your suggestions in the meeting – Which has been called by the General Manager?



International Business


  1. What are basic differences between domestic and international business?
  2. While some see globalization as the avenue to the development of poor nations, others see it intensifying misery and inequalities. Critically examine the above statement in today’s context?
  3. Explain – Localisation of global strategy
  4. Explain – Technology contracting (licensing) as an alternative to FDI or ownership strategy.
  5. Explain – Major factors contributing to the success of international strategic alliances.
  6. Explain the role of “Power Distance” in understanding Hofsted’s work on cross-cultural prospective. How does this help in managing international environment?
  7. Discuss the relationship between an MNE and its subsidiaries in the context of the “make or buy” decision. What are the implications so far as the organization structure/design is concerned?
  8. Explain the role of bargaining power” in managing negotiations in international business.
  9. Briefly discuss the direct and indirect impacts of FDI on LDCs


  • Identify the sequence of events that has led to the current problem. (b) Analyse the problem in the context of the process of globalization that has been increasingly witnesses over the past decade or so. (c) Examine the “fairness” of establishing a 100% subsidiary by Schwitz GMBH when the alliance is on. (d) What future course of action would you suggest to S&S? Give reasons for your answer.
  • Is Sunlight on the right track in going global without trying to consolidate its position further in the home market? 2. Can Sunlight realise its global vision with its current mix of strategies? However fine the company’s HR planning had been, had Shukla made a mistake by not developing his strategies first? 3. Are there any gaps in Shukla’s game plan to conquer the globe? 4. What are the learnings that you can derive from the “Sunlight” case so far as the internationalization of business is concerned?
  • What are Electrlox’s reasons for direct investment? 2. How has Electrolux’s strategy changed over time? How has this affected its direct investment activities? 3. Which of Electrolux’s foreign investments would be horizontal and which would be vertical? What are the advantages of each? 4. What do you see as the main advantages and possible problems of expanding internationally primarily through acquisitions as opposed to building one’s own facilities? 5. Should Electrolux take over Granges?



International Business

1.Which of the theories of international trade can help Indian services providers gain competitive edge over their competitors?

2.Pick up some Indian services providers.  With the help of Michael Porter’s diamond, analyze their strengths and weaknesses as active players in BPO.

3.Compare this case with the case given at the beginning of this chapter.  What similarities and dissimilarities do you notice? Your analysis should be based on the theories explained.

1.What are some current issues facing Peru? What is the climate for doing business in Peru today?

2.What type of political risks does this fishing company need to evaluate? Identify and describe them.

  1. What types of integrative and protective and defensive techniques can the bank use?
  2. Would the bank be better off negotiating the loan in New York or in Lima ? Why?
  3.    Why is that Coke has not been able to make profit in its Indian operations?
  4. Do you think that Coke should continue to stay in India? If yes, why?
  5. What cultural adaptations would you suggest to the US expatriate managers regarding their management style?
  6. Using the Hofstede and the value orientations cultural models, how can you explain some of the cultural differences noted in this case?
  7. Where does the joint venture meet the needs of both the partners? Where does it fall short?
  8. Why had ABB-PBS failed to realize its technology leadership?
  9. What lessons one can draw from this incident for better management of technology transfers?
  10. What factors have shaped the accounting system currently in use in China?
  11. What problem does the accounting system, currently in sue in China, present to foreign investors in joint ventures with Chinese companies?
  12. If the evolving Chinese system does not adhere to IASC standards, but instead to standards that the Chinese governments deem appropriate to China’s “Special situation”, how might this affect foreign firms with operations in China ?
  13. “You can’t tell consumers that the low price they are paying for a particular fax machine or automobile is somehow unfair. They’re not concerned with the profits of companies. To them, it’s just a great bargain and they want it to continue.” Do you agree with this statement? Do you think that people from different cultures would respond differently to this statement? Explain your answers.
  14. As we’ve seen, the WTO cannot currently get involved in punishing individual companies for dumping – its actions can only be directed toward governments of countries. Do you think this is a wise policy ? Why or why not? Why do you think the WTO was not given the authority to charge individual companies with dumping? Explain.
  15. Identify a recent antidumping case that was brought before the WTO. Locate as many articles in the press as you can that discuss the case. Identify the nations, products (s), and potential punitive measures involved. Supposing you were part of the WTO’s Dispute Settlement Body, would you vote in favor of the measures taken by the retailing nation? Why or why not?


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Labour Law Management

  1. Define Factory.
    2. Define child.
    3. Define Lay off.
    4. Define Lockout.
    5. Define Appropriate Government.
    6. What are Penalties and Offences?
    7. What is Payment of Gratuity?
    8. What is the time limit for payment of bonus?
    9. What is Amalgamation?
    10. Define weekly hours.1. What is the object of the apprentices Act?
    2. Explain the scope of employer’s liability Act, 1938.
    3. What are the privileges of a registered trade union?
    4. Give the procedure for fixing and devising Minimum wages.
    5. State the rules as to employer and employee’s contribution
    6. What are the rules as to payment and recovery of contribution by an employer?
    7. Under what circumstances, an employee can withdraw the amount credited in his provident fund scheme.
    8. What are the steps in dissolution?
    9. What are the special provisions in payment of bones Act, 1966?
    10. What are the provisions of termination of employment under industrial employment act 1946?1. Define Gratuity and determine the payment of Gratuity.
  2. Explain Adjudication of Disputes and claims.
    3. Explain the provisions for leave and various types of leave under industrial employment act.
    4. Industrial Disputer Act 1947 Discuss elaborately.
    5. Explain the procedure for the Employment of young person and women annual bear with wages.


(a) What is Information system?

(b) What is prototyping?
(c) What is Web Based System?

(d) What is hyperlink?

(e) What is knowledge management system?


  1. What is EIS? Explain its advantages and disadvantages
  2. What are the major challenges involved in building, operating and maintaining information system?
  3. How does an organization impact in IT? Explain.
  4. Explain the four stage model of IT planning.
  5. What are the steps involved in implementation and evaluation of a system?
  6. What is DSS? What are the models? Explain its components.
  7. What are the benefits and application of content management?
  8. What are the types of IS? Explain each of them.
  9. Explain a) ERP b) SCM.
  10. What are recent developments in MIS area?
  11. How do you manage the multimedia content?
    13. What are the ethics in IT?
  12. Explain the features and characteristics of objects in object oriented analysis and design.


Managerial Economics

  1. Managerial Economics is the application of Economic Theory to business management. Discuss
  2. What are the needs for demand forecasting? Explain the various steps involved in demand forecasting.
  3. Define production function. How is it helpful while taking output decisions?
  4. (a) ‘ The monopolist represents one man industry’? Comment and discuss how equilibrium position can be attained by the monopolist.

(b) Use appropriate diagrams to supplement your answer.

  1. (a) Define partnership and explain its salient features and limitations.

(b) What are the qualities of a good partner?

  1. What are the components of working capital? Explain each of them.
  2. Give a brief account on the important records of Accounting under Double entry system and discuss briefly the scope of each.
  3. (a) From the information (given with attachments), calculate
  4. Debt Equity ratio ii. Current ratio

(b) Calculate Interest Coverage ratio from the information (given with attachments) .



  1. At the time when the market leader for instant noodles was Nestles Maggi, the main challenger was Top Ramen’s Noodles. Applying the concepts of marketing Management, what would be your strategic plan in order to keep up the top position of Maggi
  2. Discuss the relationship between ‘Segmentation’ and ‘Positioning’. Explain the major criteria of Segmentation and Positioning. Quote sufficient examples to strengthen your answer.
  3. (a) Describe in detail the stages in the Product Life Cycle

(b)       In this context, explain the challenges that a Marketing Manager has to deal while introducing a new product

  1. What do you understand by Channel of Distribution? Explain the different kinds of Channel of Distribution in detail.
  2. Explain the factors affecting Pricing Decision. What are the various methods of pricing a Product? Briefly explain them. Also, differentiate between Price shadowing and Price Covering.
  3. What are the essential Factors influencing Consumer behavior? Explain its significance in Marketing Management in accordance with the Technology advancements.
  4. Write Short Notes on any four of the following:

(a)       Price Skimming. (b)              Media Selection for Advertising    (c)    Sales Promotion

(d)       Product Differentiation

  1. A new product is to be launched by a company at Mumbai. As a part of identifying the consumer behavior, the company intends to carry out a research process. Outline a Marketing Research Process for the company in order to establish the requirements of the consumers.
  2. Discuss the main issues narrated in the case in your own style
  3. Carry out a SWOT Analysis.



  1. Examine the progress of Profile’s Group as a leading interior designer and decorator.
  2. What kind of change was observed in the STP strategy of the firm and how was it useful?
  3. Evaluate the working of Profile’s group with respect to the Segmenting, Targeting and Positioning of markets. Do you have any suggestions for the firm?

1.How will you determine the marketing mix for our enterprise?

2.Do you have any ideas to make our enterprise successful particularly by enhancing or improving the marketing mix?

3.What do you think will be the challenges in making an effective marketing mix since our enterprise is a new one?

1) Identify the qualities of Roger as a PR professional and analyse his role in the companies that he worked for.

2) In the above problem situations, was there any other approach that Roger could have adopted? If yes, suggest some approaches. If no, why do you agree with Roger’s approach?

3) List the PR tools and strategies that were adopted by Roger in dealing with the problem situations.


1:- Identify the approach (plus points and negative points) of the two salespersons in the above situations and make a comparative analysis.

2:- In both the situations, were the customers satisfied with how the salespersons handled their queries? Analyze the sales person’s and customer’s interactions in the above situations.

3:- If you were a salesperson, how would you have handled the above two situations? Do you have any suggestions for Jagan and Tarun?



  1. What marketing strategy should be designed by Mr. Sarin to be able to achieve the targeted 5% market share?
  2. How should Deepa Products (P) Ltd. position Trust Regular and Trust Night to induce customers to buy it? What should be the key benefits of their toothpastes?
  3. Should the company price its products economically, or should it aim for premium pricing?
  4. How important is new product development to Caterpillar?
  5. What sources of new product ideas might a company like caterpillar use?
  6. Evaluate CAT as a brand name.
  7. Evaluate each of the four points of CTC’s strategy.
  8. How do you explain the present situation faced by the company?
  9. Was it a good idea to enter into a three-year contract with the Cooperative Society? Why?
  10. Is it possible to renew the contract with the Cooperative Society? If so, how? Suggest a detailed programme on a crash basis with the budget constraint of Rs. 50, 00, 000.
  11. What decision would you take if you were in place of Mr. Nathan?
  12. Do you feel the proposal of a new sub-office is economically justified against the stated policy of the company? If yes, why? If no, then how could it be made justifiable?


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09901366442 – 09902787224





  1. (a) Draw a systems view diagram of any service organization of your choice. Identify its various components. Explain its interdisciplinary nature. 10

(b) What are the major characteristics of a Production system? Discuss some of its upcoming issues that provide economies in production and efficiency in the performance of the system. 10


  1. (a) Explain with examples, how the TQM concept can integrate design engineering, manufacturing and service. 10

(b) What are process capability studies ? Explain the process capability index with applications to a real life example. 10


  1. (a) Compare traditional process planning with Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP). Also explain a generative CAPP system. 10

(b) Explain the objectives of Total Productive maintenance. Give its importance. Also comment on the concept of TPM promotion. 10


  1. (a) Why is forecasting required in operations management ? Discuss the concept of forecast error as applied to different conditions. 10

(b) How are quantitative models of forecasting different from qualitative models ? Discuss in detail time-series model as used for forecasting. 10


  1. (a) What is facility planning ? Explain with examples different types of layouts as used in manufacturing organisations. 10

(b) Discuss work measurement as a process to establish task time. Explain the various techniques for developing time standards. 10


  1. (a) Explain just in time manufacturing with the help of examples. Discuss its advantages and disadvantages. 10

(b) For an independent demand inventory model, derive the equation for Economic Order Quantity. List all assumptions. 10



  1. Write short notes on any four of the following: 4×5=20

(a) OPT

(b) Break even analysis

(c) Lean manufacturing

(d) Kanban system

(e) Line of Balance for Production Control

(f) Purpose of aggregate plans.




(a) What is the problem in the case?

(b) How do you see the behavior of the safety supervisor? What would you do if you were the safety supervisor ?

(c) How do you see the change in John’s behavior from an informal leader to the one involved in a fight with a supervisor vis-a-vis the company’s policy?

(d) Could Mr. Prasad and the safety supervisor have prevented John’s case at the initial level?

(a) What is the problem in the case? Explain.

(b) Explain Govinda’s behavior and work experience vis-a-vis the psychologist’s report.

(c) How do you see Nair’s suggestion to Amrit? Give reasons.

(d) What are Amrit’s considerations in taking a decision? What should he do? Explain.

(a) Define the major problem of EMCORP’s management.

(b) Will the formation of a committee be of any value in this situation? If a committee is needed, assign a title to the committee and indicate who should be members of the committee?

(c) In the event that Roy decides to retire, will the presence of a committee make it easier or more difficult for Roy’s successor? Discuss.

(a) What is your view of the action taken by Mr. Muthu?

(b) What are the weakness and strong points, as you consider, of Mr. Muthu as a Manager?

(c) How would you have tackled the situation, if you were Mr. Muthu?

(a) How did a brilliant engineer turn out to be a “deadwood”?

(b) Was Mr. Mohan too sensitive and arrogant?

(c) Did Mr. Tagore handle sensitive and intelligent engineers properly?

(d) Was it not advisable to transfer Mr. Mohan in 1992 when the signs of trouble were seen?

(e) Should Mr. Tagore have stopped Mr. Mohan’s increment in 1993, knowing fully well that he was quite competent?



  1. Name two motivating factors at RBS.
  2. Describe the differences between the theories of Taylor and Maslow.
  3. How does RBS’ Total Reward package fulfill Maslow’s higher levels of motivation?
  4. How does Total Reward contribute to RBS’ overall strategy?

* Explain what is meant by a premium brand.* Describe the difference between an aim and an objective

* Outline the purpose of Kellogg’s work with the ASA.

* Using examples to support your dialogue, evaluate how Kellogg communicates and discuss how

this enables it to position its brand.

1 . What is Kaizen? I low is this different from a one-step leap forward?

  1. How is Kaizen expected to help Leyland Trucks to increase its market share?
  2. How does Leland Trucks measure Its continuous improvement? Can you suggest K KPls for

another type of business organisation e.g. a retailer or a leisure centre’?

  1. Why is continuous improvement most likely to be achieved in a company with a culture of trust’?

Start your answer by explaining what is meant by a culture of trust.

  1. What do you understand by the term, ‘thinking outside the box’? Give an example of how this can

be applied to engineers working for RWE npower.

  1. How does encouraging thinking outside the box help RWE npower to make improvements in the

way in which it operates?

  1. Explain how encouraging engineers at RWE npower to think outside the box has led to increased

motivation for these employees.

  1. Recommend wavy in which another organisation of your choice might improve its employees to

think in creative ways about work. results through encouraging its employees to think in creative ways

about work-related problems.

  1. How does Siemens seek to provide good career opportunities for employees?
  2. Describe one of the systems that Siemens has created which provides development opportunities

for employees at work

  1. How important is the appraisal system in helping to create shared understandings the objectives of

the organization and personal objectives of individual employees?

  1. How effective do you think the Siemens approach to people management will be 2 in creating great



Principles and Practice of Management

(a) Identify the problems in this case.

(b) Do you think the decision taken by shukla is in keeping with the faith, trust and creating developmental climate in the organisation? Critically evaluate

(c) How would you help in improving rough and tough behavior of employees?

(a) Identify the core issues in the case

(b) Place yourself in the position of the Personnel Director. Which of the following courses of action would you have chosen and why?

(i) Would you have discharged both men?

(ii) Would you have discharged Bhola only?

(iii) Would you have discharged Nathu only?

(iv) Would you have discharged neither of them? Justify your choice of decision.

(c) What policy and procedural changes would you recommend for handling such cases in future?

(a) What are the core issues the case?

(b) Do you agree with the statement “The problem, of course, has its roots in the production department itself”? Reason out your stand.

(c) Critically evaluate the finding that old supervisors complain and new workers to resist any type of control.

(d) What type of control system would you suggest to the company to improve the production?

(a) What do you think is the real, problem in this case?

(b) How do you perceive the stand of Mr. Singh? Analyze critically.

(c) What intervention should Mr. Singh use to rectify the type, of situation he is presently confronted with? Discuss giving the reasons.

(d) Discuss the implications of effecting them with your recommendations.


(a) What is the problem in your opinion? Elaborate.

(b) How would you explain the behavior of Renu and Mrs. Khan? Did Mrs. Khan handle the situation timely and properly?

(c) Assume that you are the Personnel Manager. What are the alternatives available with Mrs. Khan?

(d) What do you consider the best alternative? Why?


Principles and Practice of Management

  1. What opportunities and threats did McDonald’s face ? How did it handle them  ? What alternatives could it have chosen ?
  2. Before McDonald’s entered the European market, few people believed that fast food could be successful in Europe. Why do you      think McDonald’s has succeeded ?  What strategies did it follow ?  How did these differ from its strategies in Asia ?
  3. What is McDonald’s basic philosophy ? How does it enforce this philosophy and adapt to different environments ?
  4. Should McDonald’s expand its menu ? If you say no, then why not ? If you say yes, what kinds of precuts should it add ?
  5. Why is McDonald’s successful in many countries around the world ?
  6. Can a division manager develop verifiable goals, or objectives, when the president has not assigned them to him or her? How? What king of information or help do you believe is important for the division manager to have from headquarters?
  7. Was the division manager setting goals in the best way? What would you have done?
  8. Evaluate the formulation of the merger between Daimler and Chrysler. Discuss the strategic fit and the different product lines.
  9. Assess the international perspectives of Eaton and Schrempp.
  10. What are the difficulties in merging the organizational cultures of the two companies?
  11. What is the probability of success of failure of the merger? What other mergers do you foresee in the car industry?
  12. The re-engineering efforts focused on the business process system. Do you think other processes, such as the human system, or other managerial policies need to be considered in a process redesign?
  13. What do you think was the reaction of the brand managers, who may have worked under the old system for many years, when the category management structure was installed?
  14. As a consultant, would you have recommended a top-down or bottom-up approach, or both, to process redesign and      organizational change? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each approach?
  15. Is the Hewlett – Packard way of managing creating a climate in which employees are motivated to contribute to the aims of the organization? What is unique about the HP Way?
  16. Would the HP managerial style work in any organization? Why, or why not? What are the conditions for such a style to work?
  17. In the NUMMI joint venture, what did Toyota gain? What were the benefits for General Motors?
  18. As a consultant, what strategies would you recommend for European carmakers     to improve their competitive position in the         global car industry?


09901366442 – 09902787224


09901366442 – 09902787224





  1. What is Organization Culture, how do you create culture in project management?
  2. Write short notes on the following
  3. a) Suitable Organization Structure for Projects
  4. b) Stakeholder Management
  5. What are the approaches in Project Screening & Selection?
  6. a) Explain Work Break Down Structure.
  7. b) Explain Financial Module in Project Managem
  8. What is Risk Management in Projects, also explain Four -stage process?
  9. What factors do you consider in preparation of project budgets?

7  a) What is cross functional co- operation?

  1. b) Explain the uses of Virtual Project team
  2. Write short notes on the following
  3. a) Project Termination & types of project Termination b) Future Trends in Project Management



Quantitative Techniques



  1. Distinguish between decision making under certainty and decision making under uncertainty. Mention certain methods for solving decision problems under uncertainty. Discuss how these methods can be applied to solve decision problems.
  2. Distinguish between probability and non-probability sampling. Elucidate the reasons for the use of non-probability sampling in many situations in spite of its theoretical weaknesses.
  3. What are models? Discuss the role of models in decision-making. How can you classify models on the basis of behavior characteristics?
  4. What are matrices? How are determinants different from matrices? Discuss few applications of matrices in business.


Section B

Write short notes on any ten of the following:

(a) Concept of Maxima and Minima

(b) Types of classification of data

(c) Pascal Distribution

(d) Multi-stage sampling & Multi-phase sampling

(e) Box-Jenkins Models for Time Series

(f) Determinant of a Square Matrix

(g) Primary and Secondary Data

(h) Bernoulli Process

(i) The Student’s t Distribution

(j) Use of Auto-correlations in identifying Time Series

(K) Absolute value function

(l) Quantiles

(m) Criteria of pessimism in decision theory

(n) Cluster vs. Stratum

(o) Moving average models

(p) Step function

(q) More than type ogive

(r) Subjectivist’s criterion in decision making

(s) Double sampling

(t) Auto regressive models



Retail Management


  1. Do you think that people will buy merchandise related to movies? It yes please mentions the reasons.

2:- Suggest ways to overcome from piracy problems in movie merchandising?

3:- Suggest new type of merchandise that film producers can bring it to the market?

4:- Are you aware of Hollywood movie merchandise? If yes specify how they are different from bolly wood merchandise. Do you think that Indian consumer buy Hollywood merchandise?

1:- Do you think that virtual retailing channel will have consumer confidence?

2:- How the company should attract the modern house wife who addict to serials to watch home shop?

3:- Discuss the new product development strategies used in the case?

4:- Do you think Network 18’s segmentation is proper? Comment.

  1. Analyze the pricing strategies adopted by café coffee day to establish its own identity amongst its competitors
  2. Analyze the marketing strategies adopted by Sharma to promote his boutique-Mriganani.
  3. What steps should Mr. Sharma take to promote the sales


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09901366442 – 09902787224







09901366442 – 09902787224



  1. Discuss the changing scenario of business environment in India and its principal implications for the business.
  2. (a) Explain the dualistic character of Indian economy and the problem of uneven income distribution.

(b) Outline the development of consumer movement in India.

  1. (a) Write notes on (i) adjudication machinery for settlement of disputes, and (ii) Employees Pension Scheme, 1995.

(b) Enumerate the powers of the Central Government to control production, supply and distribution of essential commodities under the Essential Commodities Act, 1955.

  1. Describe the important amendments proposed under the Companies (Amendment) Bill, 2003 and the additions proposed thereto by lrani Panel.
  2. (a) Can SEBI compel a public company to get its securities listed on the stock exchanges while making a public issue? On what grounds can the listed securities be delisted by a stock exchange? State the rules in this regard.

(b) “The role of stock exchanges in India need not be over – emphasized”. Comment.

  1. Describe the evolution of the concept of corporate governance and outline the various measures adopted in India to ensure good corporate governance.
  2. Make a critical assessment of New Economic Policy keeping in view the long term objectives of economic development.
  3. (a) What are the objectives of EXIM policy 2002 – 07? Explain its main provisions.

(b) Write an explanatory note on functions and coverage of WTO.

  1. Distinguish between the following:

(a) Micro Environment and Macro Environment

(b) Economic Growth and Economic Development

(c) Money Market and Capital Market

(d) Entrepreneurship, Role and Promotional Role of Government


Business Strategy

Q.1. Write short notes on ANY TWO of the following
a. Globalization b. Task and processes in formulating business strategy
c. TQM Philosophy d. Characteristics of well formulated corporate objectives

Q.2. Describe Vision and Mission statements with suitable illustrations. What is the difference between vision and mission? How does business definition help in articulating the Mission statement?

Q.3. Describe Porter’s five forces model to analyse competition with reference to light commercial vehicle industry.

Q.4. Describe the GE multifactor portfolio matrix and state how the GE matrix is superior tool Vis a Vis the BCG matrix.

Q.5. a) Describe Ansoff’s matrix
b) What is the difference between market penetration and market development? Illustrate with suitable examples.

Q.6. What is “Best cost provider” strategy? What are the risks in pursuing this strategy?

Q.7. What strategic options a firm could follow when the firm is operating in a maturing industry?

Q.8. Describe the role of strategy supportive reward system with suitable illustrations.

E- Commerce

  1. Expand and explain the following abbreviations: (2×10=20)

(i) SHTTP  (ii) WAP  (iii) M-Commerce (iv) TCP/IP  (v) SSL (vi) SATAN (vii) EFT
(viii) XML (ix) B2B (x) MODEM

  1. Write short notes on: (3×5=15)

(a) Smart cards  (b) Digital or Electronic cash (c) Electronic wallet  (d) Electronic cheques  (e) Digital copyrights

  1. Explain the role and support of E-Commerce in the following applications: (3 X 5=15)

(i) Real estate business  (ii) Insurance sector  (iii) Jobs and employment sites(iv) Entertainment sites (v) Travel

  1. Explain the following web-enabled services with respect to the time saving, efforts of the user, convenience and quality factors: (Any 2) (5 X 2=10)

(i) Banking   (ii) Stock trading   (iii) Education


Answer any four questions from this section. (4 X 10=40)

  1. Describe the complete life cycle for the development of on-line E-commerce system using any of the existing E-commerce systems.
  2. (a) Explain in belief the different types of E-Commerce from the perspective of the buyer and seller relationship by giving suitable example for each.

(b) List the advantages of E-commerce. Also mention the disadvantages (if any)

  1. Explain in detail on-line airline ticketing system. How is it different from conventional system? Explain with the help of a diagram, types of transactions one can do, mode of payments and the various security features of on-line banking system.
  2. What is on-line publishing? Explain the components of on-line publishing.
  3. (i) Discuss the features of any C2C E-Commerce system.

(ii) Explain the security measures to be considered for any B2B E-Commerce system.

  1. Discuss the steps in the process-oriented commerce development approach with reference to any web enabled E-Commerce system.




  1. Explain the various components of control systems.
  2. Explain the following models and highlight their usefulness in formulating business unit strategies:
    (a) The BCG Model
    (b) General Electric (GE) Planning Model
  3. Explain the boundary conditions in the context of profit centre. Also explain the process of performance measurement of profit centers.
  4. What do you understand by Investment Centres? Explain the methods used for measuring investment centre performance.
  5. What do you mean by budgetary control system? Explain the process of budgetary control in an organization.
  6. Describe the criteria on which the incentives of business unit managers are decided.
  7. What are the various special control issues faced by Multi National Corporations?
  8. What are the characteristics of a project organization? Explain how these characteristics affect the control system design of a project.




Marketing Management

Q.1) Define Marketing Management. Discuss its importance and scope in today’s dynamic Competitive Environment.

Q.2) What is ‘Product Life Cycle’ ? How Marketing Mix Decisions have to
be adjusted at different stages of PLC (Product Life Cycle) ?

Q.3) Explain various pricing strategies a firm can adopt.

Q.4) What is Product Mix ? Explain various Product Mix Strategies with suitable

Q.5) Discuss various cultural issues involved in International Marketing.

(A) What is Consumer Buying Behaviour ?
(B) Explain various steps involved in Buying Consumer Goods.

Q.7) Write short notes : (Any Two)
(a) Promotion through International Exhibitions and Trade Fares
(b) Use of Internet as a Marketing Tool
(c) Channel Conflicts


Inventory Management

  1. (a) What is ABC analysis?
    (b) Give four examples of MRP.
    (c) What is meant by lead time?
    (d) Define standardization.
    (e) What are the various inventory models?
    (f) What are the functions of inventory?
    (g) Explain briefly the various types of inventories.
    (h) Define traffic management.
    (i) What is the need for feedback inventory information system?
    (j) Give two factors considered for choosing equipments for material handling.

Answer any Six questions from the followings: –

  1. Explain the following terms:
    Lead time, Re-order point, Stock out cost and Set-up cost.3. What is the purpose of safety stock? How will the use of safety stock affect the EOQ? How will the safety stock affect the total annual carrying cost of the material?4. Describe the relation between Material requirement planning and Master productions schedule. What are the advantages and limitations of MRP?5. What are the objectives of stores management? How do you decide about the location and layout of an effective store in an organization?6. What is the purpose of JIT? Why are flexible resources essential for JIT? Wow are suppliers affected by JIT?

    Q.7 A) What is Raw Material? What are its two important factors? Describe.
    B) Describe bought out components. What factors influence the decisions for bought out components?

    Q.8 A) What are (KU) and (KO). Describe them in brief.
    B) What are elements of ordering costs? How will you workout-ordering cost per order when you release 5000 orders a year with total ordering cost of Rs. 400000.

    Q.9 A) What is Safety Stock? List out the various factors influencing the safety stock.
    B) Define Service Level? How does it help in determining the Safety Stock? Explain with example.

    Q.10 A) What is forecast? List out different types of forecasts.
    Why is forecast needed?
    B) Describe in brief dependent demands and independent Demands.

    Q.11 Write Short notes on any 4 out of the followings: –
    A) Inventory with Supplier
    B) Inventory carrying cost.
    C) FSN Classification
    D) Other uses of EOQ.
    E) Inventory Control through Stock – Levels.
    F) Scrap / Surplus and its disposal.
    G) Overhauling Spares
    H) Role of computers in Inventory Management.

    PART – C
    CASE STUDY (COMPULSORY) WITH 05 Sub – question

    M/s ABC is a car manufacturing company. They have a distribution system for marketing of finished goods as follows:-
    A. Finished goods are sent to Central warehouse near the factory.
    B. From here, the finished goods (cars) are sent by road to seven Regional warehouses located at important centers in the country.
    C. Besides above two types of warehouses, there were 27 depots from where the cars are sent to different stockiest for sale.

    Due to severe market competition and restrictions on bank credit, the Top Management of M/s ABC appointed an expert committee to streamline the distribution system, The committee found followings :-

    1. Central warehouse, 7 Regional warehouse and 27 Depots together have finished stock (cars) equal to 105 days all India sales.
    2. The Marketing Manager has no time to check the Finished Goods Stock as he is busy with marketing functions.
    3. There are several cars which are lying for more than 2 years due to availability of new better models.
    4. There was lack of controlling and supervising norms for monitoring the stock positions and taking corrective actions. Indents for new cars were sent without checking of stocks.

    Apart from other things, the committee advised to put the finished Goods warehousing under Materials Management deptt. and advised a finished goods stock (Cars) equal to 48 days all India sales stock as ideal stock level in all the warehouses and depots together.
    M/s ABC Management has appointed you as Materials Manager to complete the above tasks. How will you proceed? The questions are:-

    1. Will you review the existing numbers of warehouses and depots for reduction? If so, why?
    2. How will you find slow moving and non-moving stock of cars? What methodology will you suggest to dispose off such cars?
    3. What shall be your methods for monitoring and controlling of finished Goods (car) to avoid accumulation of unsold stocks in future?
    4. Will you retain Central warehouse and why?
    5. What will be your distribution pattern for keeping stocks in central warehouse/Regional warehouse and Depots equal to the norms of 48 days All India Sales stock level?



  1. What is Physical Distribution Management (PDM)? Why is PDM considered to be a critical area of overall supply chain management? Discuss the system or ‘total’ approach to PDM in detail.

2- Define SCM integration and discuss the four stages of Steven’s model of supply chain integration. Also, describe the strategies involved in SCM integration.

  1. “Many innovations on technology-based approaches are well-suited to the enhancement of the effectiveness of Supply Chain Management”-Justify the statement by giving few applications of information technology in SCM.
  2. What is Customer Profitability Analysis? Why has it gained importance in the recent times? Is it ethical to deny a customer who is not profitable?
  3. Why is the location of warehouse important for the SCM? Discuss some methods for determining the location of the warehouse
  4. What are the essential differences in the Supply Chain Management of Products vs. Services? Discuss the application of Supply Chain Management principles in Financial Services.


(a) What, in your opinion, is the major reason for the failure of Kozmo?

(b) Do you think that Kozmo promised what its supply chain could not bear? What could have prevented its shut-down?



Explain how watching a movie from another country




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