Discuss and understand waiting line/queuing theory with the help of Tirumala

Operations Management

 

Discuss and understand waiting line/queuing theory with the help of Tirumala

Case Studies

case study (20 Marks)

Tirumala is one of the largest and busiest pilgrimage centers in the world, having a history of 2000 years. Over the years, the pilgrimage center has witnessed a continuous increase in the number of visitors, with the average number going up from 20000 a day

in 1990s to 65000 a day in 2012. The Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanam (TTD), which administered the Tirumala temple along with a few supporting services to pilgrims, experienced great difficulty in managing the darshan queue. With the objective of reducing the waiting line, TTD approached academic consultants. “The way to manage the queues is by either reducing the inflows or increasing the rate of outflows or both. Estimate the average number of pilgrims waiting for darshan and the average waiting time of pilgrims in queues. Inflows can be controlled by prior booking to a large extent,” explained A Kesavarao, retired IIM Bangalore professor. A few experts suggested that another way would be to increase the number of channels of entry and exit into the main temple complex and setting up parallel queue (23instead of a single) lines that would enable more pilgrims to have a darshan. For instance, 72,000pilgrims could have darshan in a day (20 hours72,000 seconds) with a darshan time of one second in a single line but the numbers could go up to 140,000 if two lines were organized. These consultants began devising different strategies of reducing the waiting line from the 1990s. Though things have improved a lot, there is still much that need to be done. This case study elucidates the different types of strategies to manage the waiting line and reduce the waiting time that TTD had been trying out from the 1990s. It alsoexplains certain constraints that TTD was facing and a few new proposals.

Answer the following question.

 

Q1. Discuss and understand waiting line/queuing theory with the help of Tirumala

 

Q2. Elucidate how TTD managed the waiting line and discuss the constraints related to the management of darshan queue

 

Q3. Discuss how the new strategies/proposals could be effective for TTD

 

Q4. Discuss what TTD could do in future to overcome its challenges in managing the waiting line

case study (20 Marks)

Toyota’s history goes back to 1897, when Sakichi Toyoda (Sakichi) diversified into the textile machinery business from the traditional family business of carpentry. He invented a power loom in 1902 and founded the parent organization of Toyota, the Toyoda Group, in the same year. In 1926, Sakichi invented an automatic loom that stopped operating when a thread broke. This prevented the manufacture of imperfect cloth. (Calling attention to problems and rectifying them at the earliest later became an

important part of the TPS). The same year, Sakichi formed the Toyoda Automatic Loom Works (TALW) to manufacture automatic looms. Although the TPS was not the handiwork of Ohno alone, as it included concepts developed by Sakichi, Kiichiro and Eiji, it was Ohno who streamlined the concepts and developed them into a formal system. He was also responsible for training a number of Toyota’s engineers in how to use and implement the system… Analysts said that the TPS conferred a great amount of flexibility and productivity enhancing capabilities on Toyota. By the early 2000s, Toyota had the capability to manufacture a car, from raw material to final assembly, in five days. This gave the company a considerable advantage over competitors, many of whom took nearly 30 days for the same process. Analysts said that the flexibility provided by the TPS allowed Toyota to make the best use of its resources for greater productivity. Toyota’s production system has been one of the most studied systems in the field of production and operations management. The core elements of the system, like JIT, Kaizen and Kanban were emulated by several other organizations around the world, sometimes successfully and sometimes not. Taiichi Ohno was the architect of the TPS and was generally acknowledged as the father of ‘lean manufacturing’, which was the western adaptation of the TPS.

Answer the following question.

Q1. Discuss the elements of the production system of a large and highly successful car manufacturer.

 

Q2. Explain the concept and application of tools like JIT, Kanban, Kaizen, and Jidoka and their role in production management.

 

Q3. Discuss the importance of the human element in the design and operation of production systems.

 

Q4. Differentiate between the Japanese industrial culture and that of western economies.

case study (20 Marks)

On January 9, 2009, Bosch Limited (Bosch), the Indian subsidiary of the Germany based Bosch Group, announced that it would temporarily shut down its plants in India to cope with a fall in the demand for automotive parts. The drop in demand was triggered by factors such as the worldwide economic slowdown, a credit crisis, and also the company’s fear of accumulating excess inventory As a result of the economic slowdown and its impact on the auto industry, Germany based auto and ancillary company Bosch Group began taking various initiatives to prevent inventory buildup. These included a temporary closedown of some plants and cuttingback working hours in some plants in India. Other major auto and auto ancillary companies were also forced to adopt similar initiatives in order to align production with the falling demand.

Answer the following question.

 

case study (20 Marks)

This case discusses the innovation principles and processes adopted by Dyson Appliances Limited (DAL), a market leader in the vacuum cleaner market. Experts felt that product design was a core competency at DAL and the innovative designs of its product had enabled it to command a premium price in a market that was previously known for price discounting. According to analysts, DAL’s constant focus on innovation had led to its cornering a market share of 32 percent and 46 percent in the US and UK vacuum cleaner markets in 2008. Analysts attributed the success of the company to the innovation principles and processes institutionalized by DAL’s founder James Dyson (Dyson). They felt that Dyson was the source of innovation at DAL. He is himself widely known as the inventor of the first bag less vacuum cleaner (DC01, DAL’s first product) that took the vacuum cleaner market by storm in the early 1990s. Since then, he and his team had churned out innovative models of vacuum cleaners that had helped DAL gain a market leadership position. In addition to vacuum cleaners, its other products such as The Contra rotator (a washing machine) and Dyson Air blade (a hand dryer), were hailed by experts as being equally innovative. Analysts felt that DAL’s deep set culture of innovation gave it an edge over its competitors. DAL approach to innovation drew inspiration from Thomas Alva Edison’s (Edison) step by step approach where he made a single change to the prototype at a time in order to perfect his invention. Inspired by the thoughts of Edison, the engineering and design staff at DAL made a single change to the prototype that led to the launch of an innovative product. The integrated approach to design and development of new products adopted by engineers and design staff at the company had fostered a culture of innovation at DAL.

Answer the following question.

 

Q1. Examine the innovation principles and processes followed by DAL.

 

Q2. Debate how innovation helped DAL emerge as the leader in the vacuum cleaner industry.

 

Q3. Explain how innovation can lead to a competitive advantage and how DAL had developed a core competency in product design.

 

Discuss and understand waiting line/queuing theory with the help of Tirumala

 

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